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brain_organs [2016/01/03 21:20]
n.arakawa created
brain_organs [2018/06/03 09:43] (current)
n.arakawa
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 ==== Brain Organs ==== ==== Brain Organs ====
-The [[WBA Product]] specification requires a WBA model to have correspondence with actual brain organs.\\ +As the [[WBA Product]] specification requires a WBA model to have correspondence with actual brain organs 
-So this page refers to concrete brain organs ​to give an '​image'​ of WBA.\\ ​ A WBA would have to incorporate at least the first three components (the perceptual system, the hippocampus,​ and the pre-frontal-cortex-basal-ganglia-thalamus loop).+this page refers to them to give an '​image'​ of WBA.\\ ​ A WBA model would have to incorporate at least the first three components (the perceptual system, the hippocampus,​ and the pre-frontal-cortex-basal-ganglia-thalamus loop).\\ 
 +Here, it is important that a WBA model is constructed so that it can perform more than one generic class of tasks (as WBA aims for AGI).
  
-Note that this page is under construction. ​+//Note that this page is under construction.//
  
 === Two-Stream Perceptual System === === Two-Stream Perceptual System ===
 It is hypothesized that the visual and auditory systems in the brain are separated into [[https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Two-streams_hypothesis|ventral and dorsal streams]].\\ ​ The feature-place separation by the two streams would be related to [[https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Binding_problem|the binding problem]] (at least the binding of information on perceptual features and their locations).\\ It is hypothesized that the visual and auditory systems in the brain are separated into [[https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Two-streams_hypothesis|ventral and dorsal streams]].\\ ​ The feature-place separation by the two streams would be related to [[https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Binding_problem|the binding problem]] (at least the binding of information on perceptual features and their locations).\\
-At least the ventral stream consists of a cascade of cortical regions, forming a '​deep'​ network. ​ A model also has to take into account the fact that the cascade is richly bi-directional with afferent and efferent connections.+At least the ventral stream consists of a cascade of cortical regions, forming a '​deep'​ network.\\  ​A ​WBA model would also have to take into account the fact that the cascade is richly bi-directional with afferent and efferent connections.
 === Hippocampus === === Hippocampus ===
-The hippocampus,​ consisting of several sub-regions,​ is supposed to be responsible to the following cognitive functions among others.+The [[http://​www.scholarpedia.org/​article/​Models_of_hippocampus|hippocampus]], consisting of several sub-regions,​ is supposed to be responsible to the following cognitive functions among others.
   * Transferring mid-term memory into long-term memory   * Transferring mid-term memory into long-term memory
   * Navigation (at least in rodents; see [[http://​www.scholarpedia.org/​article/​Grid_cells|the grid cells and place cells]])   * Navigation (at least in rodents; see [[http://​www.scholarpedia.org/​article/​Grid_cells|the grid cells and place cells]])
-As the place cells respond to the places the subject has visited, ​it is supposed to be related to long-term memory.\\+As the place cells respond to places ​where the subject has visited, ​they are supposed to be related ​also to long-term memory.\\
 The circuitry of the hippocampus has been well studied. The circuitry of the hippocampus has been well studied.
 === Pre-frontal Cortex, Basal Ganglia and Thalamus === === Pre-frontal Cortex, Basal Ganglia and Thalamus ===
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 The basal ganglia are hypothesized to use reinforcement learning principles.\\ The basal ganglia are hypothesized to use reinforcement learning principles.\\
 For a computational model, see\\ For a computational model, see\\
-O'​Reilly et al.: [[http://​psych.colorado.edu/​~oreilly/​papers/​OReillyFrank06_pbwm.pdf|Making Working Memory Work: A Computational Model of Learning in the Frontal Cortex and Basal Ganglia]], Neural Computation,​ 18, pp.283-328 (2006)+  * O'​Reilly et al.: [[http://​psych.colorado.edu/​~oreilly/​papers/​OReillyFrank06_pbwm.pdf|Making Working Memory Work: A Computational Model of Learning in the Frontal Cortex and Basal Ganglia]], Neural Computation,​ 18, pp.283-328 (2006
 +  * [[https://​grey.colorado.edu/​CompCogNeuro/​index.php/​CCNBook/​Motor|CCNBook Motor]] ([[CCNBook-Motor summary|summary]]) 
 +  * [[https://​grey.colorado.edu/​CompCogNeuro/​index.php/​CCNBook/​Executive|CCNBook Executive]] ([[CCNBook-Executive summary|summary]])
 === Amygdala === === Amygdala ===
 The amygdala is supposed to be related to affect.\\ The amygdala is supposed to be related to affect.\\
 See [[http://​www.scholarpedia.org/​article/​Amygdala|Amygdala@Scholarpedia]] for detailed explanation. See [[http://​www.scholarpedia.org/​article/​Amygdala|Amygdala@Scholarpedia]] for detailed explanation.
 === '​Language Areas' === === '​Language Areas' ===
-If you make a human-level WBA model, you definitely have to take the '​language areas' into account.\\+If you are to make a human-level WBA model, you definitely have to take the '​language areas' into account.\\
 [[https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Wernicke%27s_area|Wernicke'​s area]] and [[https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Broca%27s_area|Broca'​s area]] are two well known language areas, where the former is hypothesized to be involved in language comprehension and the latter speech production.\\ [[https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Wernicke%27s_area|Wernicke'​s area]] and [[https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Broca%27s_area|Broca'​s area]] are two well known language areas, where the former is hypothesized to be involved in language comprehension and the latter speech production.\\
 For a computational model, see\\ For a computational model, see\\